MD - Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, in 1978.
MPH - Hebrew University, Hadassah School of Public Health, Jerusalem, and an MBA from Sloan School of Management, MIT, USA.
Board Certified in Internal Medicine, 1987 and in Health Care Management, 1992.
2003-2009: Director-General of the Israel Ministry of Health.
1998-2001: Director-General of Hadassah Medical Organization, Jerusalem.
Since 1996: Professor in Health Care Management, Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem.
Individually or jointly authored over 100 published scientific papers.