Hebrew University, Jerusalem - M.D. (1964) and M.P.H. (1972).
Board specialties in public health and medical administration. Post graduate training in communicable diseases epidemiology in the U.S. Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia.
Served as head of army health branch, medical corps headquarters, Israel Defence Forces (1972-1976), senior physician, department of clinical epidemiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (1976-1978), Haifa region health officer, Ministry of Health (1978-1988), Director-General, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa (1988-2000).
Retired in 2000.
Senior lecturer (Ret.) Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa.