Born Tel-Aviv ľ 1935.
Resident in Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Hadassah, Jerusalem (1961-1966).
NIH Research Fellow, UC San Francisco (1968/69).
Chief Resident & Senior Physician, Nephrological Service, Hadassah, Jerusalem (1969-1972).
Senior Lecturer in Internal Medicine, Hebrew University, (1971).
Head, Department of Nephrology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center (1972-1985).
Director of Rokach ("Hadassah") Hospital, Tel-Aviv Medical Center (1976-1985).
Acting Director, Tel-Aviv Sorasky Medical Center (1985/6).
Associate DirectorľGeneral, Hadassah Medical Organization (1986/87).
Specialist in Medical Administration (1987).
Director, Assuta Hospital & CEO of Assuta Medical Centers (1987-1996).
Medical Director, Maccabi Health Services (1996-2002).
Scientific Director, Israel National Institute for Health Policy Research (2002-2018)